1. Read the attached article (Medication errors: What they are, how they happen,


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1. Read the attached article (Medication errors: What they are, how they happen, and how to avoid them by J.K. Aronson) and summarize the findings. Be sure to include a discussion of the Types of Errors from Table 1 of the article. Minimum of 150 words. (ARTICLE IS ATTACHED)
2. Answer the questions based on the case below.
A 49-year-old man underwent a colonoscopy by a colorectal surgeon who identified a large, firm tumor causing partial narrowing, approximately 60-70 cm from the entry site. Pathology of this tumor was suspicious for carcinoma. In addition, a polypectomy was performed at a different location, and the site was tattooed. Pathology of this second site was consistent with tubulovillous adenoma.
Two weeks later, the same surgeon performed a partial colectomy of the tattooed area, believing it to be the marker for the tumor to be removed. On further consideration, after the procedure, the surgeon reviewed the colonoscopy and pathology reports and realized the wrong portion of the colon had been removed. The surgeon discussed this with the patient and family, and two days later a second surgery was performed. The patient initially did well after this second procedure, but on the 10th day, an anastomotic leak was discovered by barium enema. A third procedure was performed, finding adhesions and a severe inflammatory reaction which required a diverting loop ileostomy on the right side of the abdominal wall. One day after hospital discharge, the patient was readmitted for 2 days due to fever, abdominal pain, and bloody drainage.
Over the course of the next month, the patient had 3 separate Emergency Department (ED) evaluations for complaints of fever, dyspnea, weakness, and cough with continued antibiotic treatment for a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. An oncology consultation was obtained 10 weeks after the initial surgery. Instead of chemotherapy, the oncologist recommended observation. After several surgical follow-up visits, the patient underwent closure of his ileostomy almost 7 months after surgery. Within 10 days after this closure, however, the patient was again seen in the ED with fever and redness at the closure site. Cultures were positive, and the patient was once again admitted, this time with a right lower quadrant abdominal abscess requiring incision and drainage. Two months later, the patient was noted to have metastatic cancer involving the liver, and an intravenous port was placed to facilitate chemotherapy.
Discuss:
Describe at least three approaches you would recommend in an attempt to reduce risk and improve communication in the case.
What would be the liability for the healthcare providers (physicians, etc.) in this case?
3. Read the attached Speak Up flyer from The Joint Commission on The Universal Protocol. Describe an example of using a Time-Out procedure in your medical specialty of imaging or therapy.

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